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Why Do Transposing Instruments Exist?

Historical and Performative Reasons for Transposing Instruments

 

Instruments are usually classified according to their ‘family’: strings, percussion, brass wind, etc. But did you know they are also classified by whether they are concert pitch instruments or transposing instruments?

How many transposing instruments can we find in the symphonic orchestra? And in jazz music? How about Rock n’Roll? Do they actually need to be transposed – or is this just for historical reasons?

In this article, we’ll answer all your questions about them. Let’s dive into it!

 

Introducing Transposing Instruments

The difference is simple: sheet music for transposing instruments is written in a different key from the sound they actually are producing. To make it even clearer: you play a note, and you hear a completely different one!

Seems from another planet, but don’t worry, we can help you with a few examples:

When a clarinet in Bb plays a C, the actual pitch produced is a Bb. This is because the clarinet is a transposing instrument!

Similarly, the French horn is also transposing – if it plays a C, the actual pitch you hear is an F!

And guess what? Even voices can be transposing! In fact, a tenor singer’s music is often written one octave higher than the pitch he actually produces.

 

But… Do We Actually Need Transposing Instruments?

This kind of instruments are mainly convenient for performers. For example, octave transposing instruments avoid using a lot of ledger lines and make the parts easier to read.

When it comes to instruments transposing to other pitches, they exist to let performers play more instruments. Thanks to transposing, a single performer can play the entire family of an instrument (like the Clarinet family) after learning the fingering for just one of them.

But how can this be possible? Well, the reason is historical. Let us explain it to you!

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The bass guitar is a low octave transposing instrument

 

The Historical Origins

Originally, the clarinet was tuned in C. However, due to technical limitations, the sound quality was bad when playing in certain keys. Therefore, luthiers created two more instruments: the clarinet in A and the clarinet in Bb – which is the most popular today.

The tuning of these clarinets was different, but they were built the same way! This meant a clarinet player could switch between them without having to learn new fingerings.

Awesome, right?

Seeing how practical this was, luthiers decided to apply the same logic to all the instruments with similar problems, such as the trumpet, the cornet, the French and English horns, etc.

When creating the saxophone, they decided to follow the same approach. Thanks to the transposition, a saxophonist can play the soprano, alto, tenor, baritone and bass saxophones.

It’s also important to note that not all families of instruments with different tunings are transposing. For example, the tuba can be tuned in C, Bb, Eb, and F – but the fingering is different for each one!

 

Modern Instruments

More than 30 modern instruments are transposing. However, we’ve listed the most common ones:

Main Transposing Instruments

Instruments in B Flat (major second lower)

  • Clarinet
  • Soprano Saxophone
  • Trumpet
  • Cornet

 

Low Instruments in B Flat (major ninth lower)

  • Bass Clarinet
  • Tenor Saxophone
  • Euphonium

 

Instruments in F (perfect fifth lower)

  • French Horn
  • English Horn

 

High octave instruments:

  • Piccolo Flute – one octave
  • Xylophone – one octave
  • Glockenspiel – two octaves

 

Low octave instruments:

  • Guitar
  • Tenor Singer
  • Double Bass
  • Bass Guitar

 

Get Sheet Music, Even for Transposing Instruments!

No matter if your instrument is transposing or not, My Sheet Music Transcriptions can create customized and high-quality sheet music for you!

Don’t hesitate to reach out through our website.

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